ADVISORY BOARD:

- Hon. John B. Anderson (IL)

- Hon. Birch Bayh (IN)

- Hon. John Buchanan (AL)

- Hon. Tom Campbell (CA)

- Hon. David Durenberger (MN)

- Hon. Jake Garn (UT)

- Tom Downey (D-NY)

EVERY VOTE EQUAL:

A State-Based Plan For Electing
The President By National Popular Vote

-------------------------------------------

By John R. Koza, Barry Fadem, Mark Grueskin,
Michael S. Mandell, Robert Richie, and Joseph F. Zimmerman

-------------------------------------------

With 16 forewords from John B. Anderson (R,I–IL), Birch Bayh (D–IN), John Buchanan (R–AL), Tom Campbell (R–CA), Greg Aghazarian (R–CA), Saul Anuzis (R–MI), Laura Brod (R–MN), James L. Brulte (R–CA), Tom Golisano (R,I–FL), Joseph Griffo (R–NY), Ray Haynes (R–CA), Bob Holmes (D–GA), Dean Murray (R–NY), Tom Pearce (R–MI), Christopher Pearson (P–VT), Jake Garn (R–Utah)

------------------------------------------

Fourth Edition — February 2013

 
BIOGRAPHIES OF AUTHORS AND FOREWORD WRITERS:
 
John B. Anderson served in Congress as a Republican Representative from Illinois from 1961 to 1981. He was Chairman of the House Republican Conference for 10 years. In 1980, he ran for President as an Independent and won 6.6% of the national vote. He currently a professor of law at Nova Southeastern University and is the President of the Board of Directors of The Center for Voting and Democracy (Fair Vote) in Washington , D.C.
 

 
Birch Bayh was a member of the Indiana House of Representatives from 1955 to 1963, its Speaker from 1961 to 1962, and a United States Senator from Indiana from 1963 to 1980. He is currently partner in the law firm of Venable LLP in Washington, D.C. Senator Bayh authored two amendments to the U.S. Constitution—the 25th Amendment on presidential and vice-presidential succession, and the 26th Amendment lowering the voting age to 18. He also sponsored and led the efforts to adopt a federal constitutional amendment on direct nationwide election of the president in the 1960s and 1970s.
 
 
John Buchanan is an ordained Baptist minister who has served churches in Virginia , Tennessee , Alabama and Washington , D.C. A life-long Republican, he was Alabama Republican State Finance Director and Jefferson County Chairman prior to his service for sixteen years as the first Republican to represent Birmingham in the Congress in the cityís history. A legislative consultant and public interest advocate, he has served as Chairman of the Council for the Advancement of Citizenship and as National Vice-Chairman of the Republican Mainstream Committee. Presently, he is Chairman of the Board of Managers of the Nexus Group.
 

 
Tom Campbell earned his bachelorís and masterís degrees in economics simultaneously at the University of Chicago , a law degree from Harvard, and a Ph.D. in economics from the University of Chicago . He served as law clerk to U.S. Supreme Court Justice Byron White, a White House Fellow in the Office of the Chief of Staff, and Executive Assistant to the U.S. Deputy Attorney General. He was a law professor at Stanford University Law School for 19 years, beginning in 1983. He was elected as a California state senator once and elected five times to represent the Silicon Valley area of California in the United States House of Representatives. Campbell served as Director of the California Department of Finance under Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger. He is currently the Bank of America Dean and Professor at the Haas School of Business at the University of California Berkeley . His book, Separation of Powers in Practice, published by Stanford University Press in 2004, examines the constitutionally defined roles and powers of the judicial, legislative, and executive branches of government, in the context of some of America ís most contentious policy issues.
 

 
Barry F. Fadem is a partner in the law firm of Fadem & Associates in Lafayette, California. He specializes in all aspects of campaign and election law, and provides expert consultation in the area of initiatives and referendums. He is President of National Popular Vote.
 

 
Mark Grueskin is a shareholder at Isaacson Rosenbaum P.C. in Denver and chairs the firmís Public Law and Policy practice. In addition to practicing federal, state, and local election law, he has been special counsel to the Colorado General Assembly and the City and County of Denver. Previously, he served as Legal Counsel to Governor Richard Lamm of Colorado.
 

 
John R. Koza received his Ph.D. in computer science from the University of Michigan in 1972. He published a board game involving Electoral College strategy in 1966. From 1973 through 1987, he was co-founder, chairman, and CEO of Scientific Games Inc. where he co-invented the rub-off instant lottery ticket used by state lotteries. In the 1980s, he and attorney Barry Fadem were active in promoting adoption of lotteries by various states through the citizen-initiative process and state legislative action. Between 1988 and 2003, he taught a course on genetic algorithms and genetic programming between 1988 and 2003 at Stanford University, where he was a consulting professor. He is lead author of the book Every Vote Equal: A State-Based Plan for Electing the President by National Popular Vote and originator of the National Popular Vote legislation.
 

 
Michael S. Mandell has been an associate with the law firm of Perkins Coie Brown & Bain in Phoenix and is currently the general counsel to the Arizona State Senate. He received his J.D. with honors from Arizona State University , where he was an editor of the Arizona State Law Journal.
 

Robert Richie has been the executive director of FairVote—The Center for Voting and Democracy (www.fairvote.org), a non-profit organization dedicated to advancing fair elections, since its founding in 1992. His political writings have appeared in many newspapers and in eight books, including the feature essay in Whose Votes Count. He has been a guest on C-SPAN, NBC News, National Public Radio, CNN, FOX, and MSNBC. Richie has addressed numerous events, including the annual conventions of the National Association of Counties, and National Conference of State Legislatures and drafted several pieces of federal and state legislation.
Joseph F. Zimmerman is Professor of Political Science at the State University of New York at Albany. He has authored of Interstate Cooperation: Compacts and Administrative Agreements (2002), Interstate Relations: The Neglected Dimension of Federalism (1996), Contemporary American Federalism: The Growth of National Power (1992), The Initiative: Citizen Law-Making (1997), The Referendum: The People Decide Public Policy (1997), and The Recall: Tribunal of the People (1997).
GREGORY G. AGHAZARIAN served in the California State Assembly from 2002 to 2008. He was named Assembly Republican Caucus Chairman in 2006.
SAUL ANUZIS is former chairman of the Michigan Republican Party and currently a member of the Republican National Committee.
LAURA BROD served in the Minnesota House of Representatives from 2003 to 2010 and was the Ranking Republican member of Minnesotaís House Tax Committee. She is the Minnesota Public Sector Chair for ALEC (American Legislative Exchange Council), Governing Board member of the Council of State Governments, Executive Committee Member of the Midwest Legislative Conference, and an Aspen-Rodel Fellow.
JAMES L. BRULTE represented Californiaís 31st senate district, from 1996 to 2004 and served as the Senate Republican leader from 2000 to 2004. He was previously the Republican Leader of the California State Assembly from 1992 to 1996.
B. THOMAS GOLISANO is an American businessman and philanthropist. He is the founder and Chairman of Paychex, the second-largest payroll processor in the United States. He is also the founder of the B. Thomas Golisano Foundation, an organization dedicated to serving those with developmental disabilities.
JOSEPH GRIFFO is New York State Senator (Republican) representing parts of Lewis, Oneida and St. Lawrence counties since 2007. He was Oneida County Executive from 2003 through 2006 and Mayor of Rome, New York from 1992 through 2003.
RAY HAYNES was first elected to the California State Assembly in 1992. He served in the California State Senate from 1994 to 2002, including as Senate Republican Whip. In 2000 he served as National Chairman of the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC). Haynes was again elected to the Assembly in 2002. He is a graduate of the University of Southern California Law School.
ROBERT A. "BOB" HOLMES, Ph.D. (Columbia University) is Emeritus Distinguished Professor of Political Science (Atlanta University), former Director of the Southern Center for Studies in Public Policy, and a retired Democratic State Representative (after 34 years of service) in the Georgia General Assembly. He has served as Co-Chair of the Georgia Commission to Revise the State Election Code, as an expert witness on voting rights and reapportionment and redistricting cases in several southern region federal district court cases for the ACLU Voting Rights Project and the Southern Poverty Law Center, and as an international election observer on election teams in Africa. Dr. Holmes is the author or editor of more than 25 books and more than 60 book chapters and journal articles. His most recent publication is Maynard Jackson: A Biography.
DEAN MURRAY (Republican, Conservative Party) is member of the New York State Assembly for the third district. He was a Tea Party organizer before being elected to the Assembly in February 2010. He was described by Fox News as the first Tea Party candidate elected to office in the United States.
THOMAS L. PEARCE served as a Republican Michigan state representative from 2005Ė2010. During his time in the Michigan House, he was appointed Dean of the Republican Caucus, having led several faith-based initiatives in Lansing. Prior to serving in the House, he was the executive director of the North Kent Service Center and served as director of development at Mel Trotter Ministries.
CHRISTOPHER PEARSON is in his third term as a State Representative from Burlington Vermont. He has served on the House Government Operations committee which has jurisdiction over the state's election laws. Prior to serving in the statehouse, he was the director of the Presidential Election Reform program at FairVote. He began working in politics as a campaign and Congressional aide for then-Congressman Bernard Sanders (I–VT).
JAKE GARN served as U.S. Senator representing Utah from 1974 to 1993. Garn became the first sitting member of the United States Congress to fly in space when he flew aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery as a Payload Specialist during NASA mission STS-51-D on April 12–19, 1985.